national policies wtEvery country has developed, formulated, and decreed national policies related to rural advisory services. Find some examples here. If you are looking for a national policy from a specific country, please use the search function, selecting the category “National policies” and the tag for the country.

Recommendations

Recommendations (20)

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Smallholder agriculture can potentially affect food security and nutrition through the following pathways: 

  1. Making food available through production; 
  2. Reducing the real cost of food by increasing the supply of food. The composition of production also matters, since this affects the availability and prices of different foods with their varying nutrients; 
  3. Generating incomes for farmers and those working the land as labourers, that allow access to food; and through 
  4. Providing incomes to others in the rural economy from linkages in production and consumption that create additional activity and jobs. 

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This factsheet is the second publication by generation nutrition looking at the differentways of preventing child undernutrition. It explains howagricultural programmes in developing countries can have a bigger impact in reducing undernutrition and, in doing so, fulfil one of the sectors main roles: to provide people with the nutritious food they need for a healthy and productive life.

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Given that the emphasis on enhancing agriculture’s impact on nutrition is relatively new, some key knowledge gaps exist on the relative mix of components and the extent of their integration that make implementation most effective. The institutional aspects of programme delivery, technical capacities and inter-sectoral collaboration required are also not well understood. Questions remain regarding the design and implementation of nutrition education for behaviour change and what makes such interventions work, how they can be sustained and scaled up, and at what cost? Much work remains to be done to know exactly what to do and how to do it, and to determine where the greatest opportunities are. In other words, it is important to know which type of programmes deliver the greatest benefit to target beneficiaries and are likely to have the greatest impact.

Thursday, 26 April 2018 09:34

Nutrition-sensitive Agriculture Programming

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The guidance is designed for non-nutrition specialists. It helps agriculturalists avoid unintentionally harming the nutritional status of target households and boost nutrition whenever possible. It includes:

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There is broad consensus on the need to scale up nutrition-specific interventions– ie, direct nutrition interventions such as promoting exclusive breastfeeding, infant and young child feeding, or greater coverage of vitamin A. But the limited evidence base on nutrition-sensitive approaches makes it difficult for agriculture, social protection and other relevant policies to take account of their potential impact on nutrition. There is an urgent need to strengthen the nutritional component of many agricultural policies and investment plans.2 A role of agricultural policy is to promote economic development and provide nutrition for a country’s population. CAADP plans should include a nutrition strategic objective supported by clearly defined indicators. The indicators should be differentiated by gender and age group (adult and child).

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Ethiopio is one of the 36 countries with the highest burden of malnutrition in the world. In recent years, the country has improved the underweight and stunting trends in under-five children, for which rates of stunting and under-weight decreased by 14% and 12% respectively, between 2000 and 2011; while prevalence of vasting did not show significant progress over the past 11 years. Currently, more then 4 out of 10 under-five children are still chronically malnutritioned, and nutrition has become one of the major national agenda items that need multi-sectoral coordination. The Empowering New Generations to Improve Nutrition and Economic Opportunities (EGNE) project iw working to strengthen mulit-sector coordination and build capacity at the policy and implementation levels, as well as at the pre-service education and training level.

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Agriculture is a fundamental driver of economic growth and poverty reduction for many developing countries. Past efforts at revitalizing the agriculture sector have failed in part because they overlooked the role of women and the negative effects of gender inequalities on productivity. According to The State of Food and Agriculture (FAO, 2011), “Women comprise, on average, 43% of the agricultural labor force in developing countries, ranging from 20% in Latin America to 50% in Eastern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa”. Reducing gender inequalities in access to productive resources and services could increase yields on women’s farms by 20–30%, which could raise agricultural output in developing countries by 2.5–4% (FAO, 2011).

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In today’s complex and interconnected world, what we eat and how we produce it are inextricably bound together. A focus on increasing food production without due concern for the environment is causing severe land and water degradation. A focus on addressing hunger without a focus on good nutrition is causing an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. A focus on increasing yields in a few staple food crops is contributing to loss of crop diversity. What we need is to be able to produce a wide variety of nutritious foods while having minimal impact on the environment – a sustainable food system. The Sustainable Development Goals, signed by 193 world leaders in 2015, recognize that these challenges are interconnected and multidimensional.

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The INGENAES capacity development activities are intended to build gender-responsive, nutrition-sensitive skills among organizations providing agricultural extension services (AES). The objectives are to enable these organizations to identify and equip staff with the appropriate skills to deliver services that lead to improved gender- and nutrition-related outcomes; and to establish a set of gender-responsive, nutrition-sensitive AES practices that substantially and effectively strengthen gender equity and improve nutrition outcomes. 

What types of skills, attitudes, and behaviors (SAB)1 are necessary to enable institutions to deliver gender- and nutrition-informed services? 

The SABs needed at the individual level require a supportive environment that enables individual extension workers to employ the SABs. Such a supportive environment consists of technically correct training, supportive supervision, and appropriate incentives to encourage SAB deployment by staff. 

Wednesday, 25 April 2018 16:56

Food-based Dietary Guidelines: An Overview

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Men and women of all ages need to consume a variety of foods to support growth, provide strength, improve cognitive function, and reduce susceptibility to chronic diseases, illnesses, and infection (Smolin & Grosvenor, 2016; WHO, 2014). In an effort to help address the nutrition concerns of populations, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) have been established in several countries around the world (FAO, 2016). These FBDG are created to inform the public about consuming more nutritious foods and living a healthier life (FAO, 2016). Additionally, countries use FBDGs not only to guide nutrition education programs but also to guide policies and programs in various sectors like agriculture, education and social protection. The purpose of this technical note is to help health professionals and non-health professionals understand basic facts about the FBDG such as origins, purpose, characteristics, and potential challenges when developing and implementing these FBDG with target communities.

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